International Workshop on Technical and Scientific Aspects of MST Radar

Session M1: Radar hardware, signal processing, quality control for coherent and incoherent radars
Session M2: New radar/radio systems and future MST plans
Session M3: Ionospheric irregularities and IS experiments
Session M4: MST Radar scattering, turbulence and small-scale processes
Session M5: Meteorology and forecasting/nowcasting
Session M6: Middle atmosphere dynamics and structure
Session M7: Radar detection of meteors
Session M8: Brainstorming

Session M1:
Radar hardware, signal processing, quality control for coherent and incoherent radars
Session Conveners: Ralph Latteck and Yuichi Otsuka
Invited Speakers: Toru Sato, Juha Vierinen, and Jenn-Shyong Chen

Instrument design and performance, signal processing algorithms and data quality control are the basis of remote sensing of the MST region using atmospheric radars. Advances in radar technology allowed the deployment of new features applicable for modern phased-array atmospheric and ionospheric radar systems such as e.g. PANSY in Antarctica or MAARSY in northern Norway. Several existing radar facilities have already been upgraded for new capabilities during the recent years. This session will provide a forum for discussing the design, implementation, and engineering aspects of techniques associated to MST and Incoherent Scatter radar systems as well as related signal processing algorithms and quality control methods. This includes the development of new radar system components as e.g. transceivers, receivers or digitizers as well as new approaches to signal-processing as e.g. adaptive array systems to remove clutter echoes or radar imaging techniques to measure fine structures. The re-evaluation of older or existing techniques as used for e.g. the rejection of poor data or outliers should be also discussed in this session. The session is directed to develop synergies between the various user groups which study the lower, middle and upper atmosphere and the ionosphere.
The main topics of the session are:
  • implementation of new radar techniques
  • new radar components (transceiver, receivers, digitizers, ...)
  • new approaches to signal-processing
  • re-evaluation of signal-processing and analysis techniques

Session M2:
New radar/radio systems and future MST plans
Session Conveners: Jorge L. Chau and Juha Vierinen
Invited Speakers: M. Yamamoto, D. Hysell, and A.K. Patra

We invite contributions that present newly constructed or planned instrumentation to study the mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere, and the lower ionosphere. Submissions can describe new large, medium, and small scale projects and they can also describe planned upgrades to capabilities of existing instruments. Examples of possible contribution topics can include: MST radars, incoherent scatter radars, new rocket and satellite missions, meteor radars, boundary layer radars, wind profilers, ST radars, specular meteor radars, MF radars, LIDARs, airglow imagers, aperture synthesis imaging radars, HF radars, and ionospheric heaters. We also encourage submissions on cross-cutting novel instrumentation plans, which can be used also for MST studies as a secondary purpose, e.g., passive radars, LOFAR, LWA, etc.

Session M3:
Ionospheric irregularities and IS experiments
Session Conveners: Marco Milla and Baiqi Ning
Invited Speakers: Fabiano Rodrigues, Erhan Kudeki, and Roger Varney

Observations made using coherent and incoherent scatter radars are contributing to a better understanding of the dynamics and irregularities of the ionosphere. New radar techniques, antenna deployments, and imaging systems have been implemented in recent years to improve the quality, resolution, and spatial coverage of the ionospheric measurements. Extensions of the incoherent scatter theory considering radio propagation effects through the ionosphere have also been carried out to describe further details of the radar observations. Meanwhile, new GNSS (GPS + GLONASS + Galileo + Beidou) TEC/scintillation receivers and the expanded ionospheric observational network have allowed significant progress in the study of the ionosphere on a global scale. This session welcomes all papers on the recent advances in understanding the ionosphere with radar and other techniques. Of particular interest are
  1. E/F region plasma irregularities and associated ionospheric scintillations, valley (150 km) region irregularities, possible effects of E-F region coupling and of lower atmosphere-ionosphere coupling on irregularity generation;
  2. advances in experimental and data analysis techniques, coordinated studies with coherent and incoherent scatter radars, new facilities;
  3. Magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (MIT) coupling studies using coordinated multiple instrument observations (e.g., Super-DARN and GNSS TEC receiver network).

Session M4:
MST Radar scattering, turbulence and small-scale processes
Session Conveners: Hubert Luce and Phil Chilson
Invited Speakers: Gerald Lehmacher, Lakshmi Kantha and Dave Fritts

For more than four decades, MST radars and wind profilers have been used for studying atmospheric structures and dynamics at various scales, as well as for operational applications. Technological advances and innovations in signal and data processing methods have made it possible to improve the performance of these radars in terms of sensitivity, accuracy and resolution, so that a better understanding of radar backscatter mechanisms and small-scale processes in the atmosphere could be achieved. A large number of studies have demonstrated the usefulness of MST radars and wind profilers for investigating
  1. the fine-scale structure of the atmospheric fields from the planetary boundary layer all the way to the ionosphere,
  2. convective and dynamic instabilities near frontal zones and interfaces,
  3. small-scale turbulence and atmospheric gravity waves, and
  4. the characteristics of precipitating clouds in association with clear air dynamics, among other processes.
These studies have generally been performed during field campaigns by coupling radars, other remote sensing instruments such as lidars, in situ observations (balloons, aircraft, unmanned aerial systems, rockets, ...), and theoretical and modelling approaches. The present session welcomes collaborative and innovative contributions devoted to the study of radar scatter mechanisms, the structure of turbulence and small-scale processes in the troposphere and the middle and upper atmosphere.

Session M5:
Meteorology and forecasting/nowcasting
Session Conveners: Volker Lehmann and Yoshiaki Shibagaki
Invited Speakers: Kazuya Yashiro and Surendra K. Dhaka

This session focuses on all meteorological phenomena of the boundary-layer, troposphere, and lower-stratosphere that are observed by radar wind profilers or that are of relevance to radar wind profiler observations. Radar wind profilers are capable of continuously measuring winds with high time and height resolution in both the clear and the cloudy atmosphere, which allows the sampling of small scale phenomena in the atmosphere. For example, radar wind profiler observations can reveal a fine structure of cumulus convection as the source of gravity waves. They can also provide valuable information about atmospheric stability, turbulence, humidity, clouds, and precipitation, especially in the context of multi-instrument measurements (sensor synergy). Generally, wind profiler data are effective and helpful for short-term forecasting application. We invite presentations on meteorological application of wind profilers, special observation campaigns with multi-instruments, the assimilation of wind profiler data in numerical prediction models, and the impact of profiler network data on operational weather forecasting and nowcasting.
Keywords: Dynamics, Humidity, Clouds, Precipitation, Weather Systems, Data assimilation

Session M6:
Middle atmosphere dynamics and structure
Session Conveners: Iain Reid and M. Venkat Ratnam
Invited Speakers: M Venkat Ratnam, Bob Vincent, and Kaoru Sato

The middle atmosphere, the region between 10 and 100 km, remains a critical region of study of the coupling between the lowest part of the atmosphere, the troposphere, where significant gravity wave generation takes place, and the thermosphere, where major dissipation occurs. It is also the region that shields the surface from a major part of the ionizing radiations from the Sun. The strong interplay between the chemistry, dynamics and thermal structure of the middle atmosphere, and the potential for changes in these relationships in a changing climate scenario, underscore the importance of better understanding the region. Indeed, there are already indications of long-term changes in the mean winds, gravity wave activity and electron densities in parts of the region. Radar studies have contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the Middle Atmosphere and its important role. However, the region between about 20 and 60 km, a significant part of the Middle Atmosphere, remains inaccessible to radar. For this reason, coordinated studies using a variety of techniques, including balloon borne instruments, rockets, lidar, satellite observations and modeling are required to fully understand it. In this session, recent advances in the field of Middle Atmosphere Structure and Dynamics using standalone MST/MF/Meteor radars, as well as coordinated multi-instrument investigations of the 10 to 100 km height region are particularly encouraged. Topics of particular interest include both case studies and climatologies of turbulence, mean winds, gravity waves, tides and planetary waves, and possible long-term changes and coupling from the troposphere to the thermosphere and the lateral coupling (low to high latitude and vice versa) studies are highly encouraged. We are also interested in reconciling observed trends in the middle atmosphere with those in the lower atmosphere, again against model projections, and understanding the differences.

Session M7:
Radar detection of meteors
Session Conveners: Joel Younger and Vania Fatima Andrioli
Invited Speakers: Guozhu Li

Radar detections of meteors are a valuable resource for geophysical and astronomical studies in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) region of the atmosphere at heights between 70-110 km. This session will discuss applications of meteor detections by dedicated meteor radars, MST radars, and other radar systems to studies of the dynamics and structure of the MLT, the origins and distribution of meteoric material, and the development of hardware, software, and analysis techniques for radio detection of meteors. Meteor radars are often used in conjunction with other sensors such as airglow imagers and spectrometers, lidar, satellites, and rocket measurements, making sensor fusion and validation techniques of particular interest. Participants are encouraged to submit meteor radar based research including, but not limited to, wave activity and perturbations in the middle atmosphere, the construction of three-dimensional wind fields using meteor radar data, estimates of the vertical flux of horizontal momentum, short and long term studies of the temperature and density of the MLT, and more exotic phenomena such as anomalous diffusion, meteor plasma chemistry, aerosols and polar mesospheric clouds (PMC), and ionospheric irregularities. Beyond atmospheric studies, presentations of astronomical applications are sought including the determination of the orbital parameters of meteors, the detection of discrete meteor showers, characterization of the interplanetary meteoroid flux, and the study of atmospheric entry processes and the deposition of meteoric material in the atmosphere. Discussion of advances in meteor detection methods is also encouraged, including software defined radio, interferometer calibration techniques, multistatic radar arrays, novel antenna designs, and passive radar systems.

Session M8:
Session Conveners: Erhan Kudeki and Wayne Hocking

This session is designed as an interactive, impromptu (= without advance preparation) session. It will be the responsibility of Drs. Kudeki and Hocking to keep the conversation flowing, and ensure every person has a chance to speak. We encourage workshop participants to give us topics for discussion during the week, and even prior, but there will be no invited speakers, nor any formal talks. Participants who wish may bring one (only) slide which can be used to trigger a conversation, but this is not mandatory. Typical topics might include controversial issues, unclear issues, campaign proposals which invite participation from other audience members, proposals for large-group data-sharing, collaborative software development, cross-disciplinary interaction with other communities, lessons learned from other communities that we can adapt, student opportunities and schools, and any other ideas which require wide-spread discussion. The purpose is to invigorate the community, and help us see past our day-to-day struggles and into the future; to ensure we have a vision of where we are headed. Kudeki and Hocking will try to keep the conversation rolling, but will redirect discussions when one topic is exhausted and another should be introduced. So please, bring your ideas and visions - we want to hear them!
Note: No abstract submission for this session. Bring your ideas as a one-page slide, or suggest ideas to the session conveners in person or in writing.

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