Crystal structure of cellulose Iα and Iβ

First X-ray Laue diagram was taken by Nishikawa and Ono in 1913. Since then the concepts that all the cellulose samples should be characterized by a uniform cellulose I model. This concept has been revised when high resolution solid state NMR became available and a range of cellulose samples were characterized. Finally, electron micro- diffraction study confirmed that cellulose I is a mixture of cellulose Iα and Iβ, and concluded that the former adopts tricilinic one chain unit cell while the latter adopts monoclinic two chain unit cell, respectively.

Sugiyama J, Vuong R, Chanzy H: An electron diffraction study on the two crystalline phases occurring in native cellulose from algal cell wall. Macromolecules, 24, 4168-4175, 1991
Sugiyama J, Persson J, Chanzy H: A combined infrared and electron diffraction study of the polymorphism of native celluloses. Macromolecules, 24, 2461-2466, 1991 Sugiyama J, Okano T, Yamamoto H, Horii F:
Transformation of Valonia cellulose crystals by an alkaline hydrothermal treatment. Macromolecules, 23, 3196-3198, 1990


H-bonding networks are now established by state of arts SR X-ray and neutron fiber diffraction studies.

Wada M, Heux L, Sugiyama J: Polymorphism of cellulose I family: reinvestigation of cellulose IVI. Biomacromolecules, 5, 1385-1391, 2004
Nishiyama Y, Sugiyama J, Chanzy H, Langan P: The crystal structure and hydrogen bonding system in cellulose Iα from synchrotron X-ray and neutron fiber diffraction. J Am Chem Soc, 125, 14300-14306, 2003
Imai T, Sugiyama J, Itoh T, Horii F: Almost pure Ia cellulose in the cell wall of Glaucocystis. J Struct Biol, 127, 248-257, 1999