Download of Equatorial MU Radar Pamphlet (3MB) (2014 version (9MB), 2017 version (3MB))
The energy and material flows that occur in all height regions of the equatorial atmosphere are referred to as the ''Equatorial Fountain'', which will be studied with the EMU radar.
1984- MU Radar
The MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar, located at the Shigaraki MU Observatory, Shigaraki, Koka, Japan, is known as the most capable atmospheric radar in the world and is one of the largest radars in Asia. Since its installation in 1984, it has been used to study the variability of the atmosphere from meteorology to upper atmosphere dynamics. The MU radar uses VHF radio waves at 46.5 MHz with a peak output power of 1 MW. The antenna area consists of 475 Yagis arranged in a circular array of 103-m diameter, which enables fast beam steerability and flexibility for diverse observations.
IEEE Milestone was dedicated to the MU radar as the world first large-scale MST radar with a two-dimensional active phased array antenna system. This is an honor bestowed to significant historical technical achievements in study areas of electric, electronics, information, and communications. Following the MU radar, recent atmospheric radars employ a similar system design.
2001- Equatorial Atmosphere Radar
The Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) is a large atmospheric radar located at the Kototabang Atmosphere Observatory right over the equator in West Sumatra, Indonesia. It operates at 47 MHz and consists of 560 Yagi antennas in a near-circular field with a 110-m diameter. The bottom of each Yagi antenna is equipped with a compact transmit-receive module. EAR has almost the same functionality as the MU radar, except that its output power is 100 kW. It can observe winds and turbulence in the height range of 1.5 km to 20 km (troposphere and lower-stratosphere) as well as ionospheric irregularities over 90 km.
2017- Equatorial MU Radar
The EMU radar plan is based upon achievements and knowledge to date, and as well advances in the research project ''Study of coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system''.
We conducted a topographic survey of the location, which completed the detailed system design, including the installation method. Additionally, the environmental assessment necessary for construction is completed.
The EMU radar will be installed north of the EAR.
History and Frontiers explored by the Equatorial Atmosphere
Hardware system of the EMU
A large-sized antenna array with a 160-m diameter and 500-kW peak output power enable the EMU radar to be ten times more sensitive than the EAR. For radar imaging measurements, the 1045 Yagi elements can be divided into 55 sub-arrays. Each sub-array is composed of 19 Yagi elements.
The EMU radar is comprised of antennas, TR Modules, a data processing unit, a modulator unit, and a demodulator unit. Multi-channel digital signal processing realizes the full measurement capability of the EMU radar.
Specifications of the EMU
Associated instruments at the EMU site
At the EMU site, various instruments are installed through collaborations with other research institutes. Operation of the instruments including the EMU and studies using them are carried out in close collaboration with National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) and other Indonesian research institutes. The coordinated observations using the EMU and collocated instruments are expected to discover and clarify various phenomena occurring in the equatorial atmosphere.